LinguiSystems home
The Source® for Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Ages: 2-12   Grades: Toddler-7         

Evaluate and treat childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) using principles of motor learning with an emphasis on speech movements and syllable shapes.


  • Accurately diagnose CAS
  • Effectively treat CAS using the eight principles of motor learning
  • Effectively incorporate language goals into therapy for CAS
Add to Cart
** This is a Cloud E-Book that is accessible from any device with Internet access. .

The authors have combined their years of practical experience with current research to give you a handbook on childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) that tells you how to:

  • evaluate and differentially diagnose CAS
  • treat CAS based on its unique characteristics 
  • develop basic communication—learning skills such as joint attention and interaction, turn-taking, imitation, on-task behavior, and increasing vocalizations and verbalizations
  • progress clients through eight levels of intervention to develop intelligble speech
  • incorporate prosody and language goals into every level of therapy
  • provide effective multisensory cues

An eight-level hierarchy of speech tasks emphasizes speech movements and sound sequences based on principles of motor learning:

  • Level 1: Stabilize existing vowels and consonant sounds
  • Level 2: Sequence established vowels and consonants in CV and VC syllables
  • Level 3: Teach new vowel and consonant sounds
  • Level 4: Produce CVCV and VCVC syllable sequences (emphasis on using established CV and VC syllables from Level 2)
  • Level 5: Close established CV and VC syllables with an established consonant sound to produce CVC words
  • Level 6: Produce multisyllabic words from stabilized sounds, syllables, and CVC words
  • Level 7: Produce consonant clusters and blends in words
  • Level 8: Produce phrases and sentences (sequencing syllables to form phrases and sentences begins as early as level 2)

Copy the student activity pages or print them from the FREE CD.  Extra helps include:

  • specific therapy techniques outlined step-by-step with visual helps
  • informal evaluation tools
  • reproducible lesson pages and pictures
  • tracking chart
  • pictures and directions for consonant hand signals
  • techniques to facilitate correct consonant sound production
  • ideas for making fun practice materials

Copyright © 2006

183-page book plus a CD of the reproducible pages, evaluation tools, forms, therapy activities

The Source for Childhood Apraxia of Speech helped me set up a methodical and multi-sensory approach for treating a child with severe apraxia of speech.  By using the hand signals for consonant sounds with the consonant production hierarchy, we made more progess than I anticipated.  It was also helpful to rearrange my session schedule so she was seen more times a week for a shorter length of time during each session.  Before reading this book, I felt at a loss for where to start because there were many sounds and consonant-vowel combinations that were not being produced.  By having a guideline, as defined in the book, I was able to provide effective treatment, provide effective exercises, provide parents with relevant homework activities to reinforce her skills, and provide a multisensory approach that she could continue to use in all settings.  It was a tremendous help, and without reading this book, I do not believe we would have made the same amount of progress.

Erica Haraldsen, SLP
Millbury, MA

  • The principles of motor learning theory and intensity of speech-motor practice are frequently emphasized in effective treatment programs for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) (ASHA, 2007).
  • A multisensory approach to treatment is often recommended.  The use of touch cues, sign language, visual prompts, and pictures have been described as very effective for children with CAS (ASHA, 2007).
  • Hallmark characteristics of CAS are vowel errors, variability in speech productions, and prosodic differences (Jacks, Marquardt, & Davis, 2005).
  • Strand and Stoeckel (2004) recommend that CAS intervention allows the child high levels of success, multiple repetitions of target word forms, and makes uses of proprioceptive input.  The clinician should implement repetition, tactile or gestural cues, and delayed modeling to allocate appropriate speech productions.  The use of a systematic hierarchy is needed but always working toward functional, intelligible, independent speech productions.
  • It is important to target syllable awareness and production in treating the speech of children with CAS (Jacks, Marquardt, & Davis, 2005).

The Source for Childhood Apraxia of Speech incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical Report]. Retrieved July 2, 2010, from

Jacks, A., Marquardt, T.P., & Davis, B.L. (2005). Consonant and syllable patterns in childhood apraxia of speech: Developmental change in three children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 39(6), 424-441.

Strand, E.A., & Stoeckel, R. (2004, October). Differential diagnosis and treatment of childhood apraxia of speech. Paper presented at a Hendrix Foundation/CASANA workshop in St. Paul, MN.


Robin Strode Downing, Catherine E. Chamberlain


Robin and Catherine have been practicing speech-language pathologists for a combined total of over 65 years.  They have a special interest in working with children who have severe communication disorders, including children with childhood apraxia of speech, oral-motor dysfunction, phonological disorders, autism, and Down Syndrome.  Their skill is in developing functional, research-based therapy programs and therapy plans for children with severe communication disorders.  They have extensive experience working with children from toddlerhood throughout the school years.  Robin and Catherine have worked together for more than 25 years and consider themselves to be "two bodies and one brain."

They both hold the Certificate of Clinical Competency from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and are licensed as speech-language pathologists in Kentucky.  Robin serves on the advisory board of the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America (CASANA).

In addition to this book, Robin and Catherine are the joint authors of Easy Does It for Apraxia and Motor Planning, Easy Does It for Apraxia Preschool, Easy Does It for Articulation An Oral-Motor Approach, The Source for Down Syndrome, and SPARC for Concepts.  Catherine is also the author of The Basic Concept Workbook and Basic Concept Pictures.

Robin and Catherine have presented numerous seminars on Childhood Apraxia of Speech and Oral-Motor Facilitation of Speech throughout the United States and Canada.  They present dynamic, informative, and fun workshops.

Robin and Catherine were the joint recipients of the 2004 Clinical Achievement Award from the Kentucky Speech-Hearing-Language Association, which is the highest professional award offered at the state level.  They were nominated for "the innovative development and delivery of a Childhood Apraxia of Speech treatment protocol that is being used throughout the United States and has been incorporated into university curricula."  They also serve as mentors and consultants to parents and speech-language pathologists throughout the country.


The strategies in The Source for Childhood Apraxia of Speech incorporate components identified as important in the treatment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech as referenced by the American Speech-Hearing-Language Association (ASHA) and the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Assocation of North America (CASANA).  These components are listed below.

  1. Conduct a thorough evaluation of communication and related skills.  Address the needs of the whole child, including health, motor, and sensory concerns as well as communication skills.
  2. Establish basic skills needed for success in therapy, such as joint attention and interaction.
  3. Use child-centered therapy building on the child's current skills.
  4. Use an effective therapy approach by:
    • using principles of motor learning for development of speech skills
    • emphasizing speech movements and syllable shapes
    • using appropriate cues and prompts to ensure success, including multisensory cues
    • providing appropriate feedback to verbal attempts
    • applying meaning and functionality to speech practice targets
    • providing frequent and consistent therapy
    • Use augmentative communication systems as needed as a bridge to speech.
    • Target prosody skills along with speech skills in therapy.
    • Target language skills as needed—receptive, expressive, pragmatics, narrative, and discourse.
    • Extend speech and language practice to the home and community settings.
    • Facilitate literacy, academics, and other learning skills.


    We hope you find the information and techniques in this book helpful as you work with children with apraxia.

    Robin and Catherine