Learn the characteristics of executive function in children–how they present, how to assess them, and how to treat them in children with a wide array of developmental communication disorders.
- Use goal-directed behavior to experience success in academics and in life
- Generalize language skills learned in therapy to real-life situations
- Monitor, manage, and integrate language in relation to behavior
Educators and medical professionals are increasingly labeling children with clusters of adaptive and self-regulatory behavioral deficits as having impairments in executive functions. When executive functions work well, the result is goal-directed behavior that is appropriate to the situation and circumstance. Executive functions are dynamic, interactive, evolving skills, such as goal selection and attainment, planning and organizing, initiation and persistence, flexiblity, and self-regulation.
The chapters include:
Chapter 1—Defining Executive Functions
the components and anatomy and physiology of executive functions
Chapter 2—Development of Executive Functions
frontal lobe development, cognitive development, development of self-control, and more
Chapter 3—Co-Morbidity of Executive Functions with Other Disorders
how executive functions are affected in autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivy, fetal alcohol syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, TBI and more
Chapter 4—Assessment of Executive Functions
deficits in fundamental language skills, specific executive function skills, developmental expectations, impact of intelligence, formal and informal assessment, and more
Chapter 5—Global Treatment Approach
increasing self-awareness, using compensatory techniques, specific language/communication objectives, modifying expectations, and more
Chapter 6—Functional Strategies and Goals
attention deficits, impulsitiviy, impaired self awareness, deficits in flexibility, impaired initiation, and more
"He can't seem to get started." "She's always talking out of turn." "He is so disorganized." If these sound familiar, The Source for the Development of Executive Functions is the resource you need. This very practical manual takes the mystery out of executive functions and helps explain your student's behavior. Copy the activity pages or print them from the FREE CD.
Copyright © 2005
- Executive functions are a group of cognitive skills localized in the frontal lobe structures. Deficits in executive functioning involve both discrete skills and the processes that control the use of these skills (Cicerone et al., 2000).
- Impairments in executive functions may co-occur with a variety of disorders or syndromes, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), fetal alcohol, very low birth weight, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The speech-language pathologist (SLP) plays a critical role in treating these children as language skills are needed to adapt or compensate for these executive function deficits (Marlowe, 2000).
- Early detection of executive function disorders allows educators and SLPs to implement needed intervention strategies in the preschool years (Isquith, Gioia, & Espy, 2004).
- By the age of four, children with higher language abilities perform better on measures of executive function, such as working memory and inhibitory control, thus enabling them to make more advantageous decisions (Carlson, Davis, and Leach, 2005).
- Children with ADHD present with impairments in executive functions which disrupt working memory, rapid naming, strategy development, and self-correction (Shallice, Marzocchi, Coser, Del Savio, Meuter, & Rumiati, 2002).
- Difficulty with memory, problem solving, and self-monitoring are all deficits commonly seen in the TBI population. Intervention to address these problems can target the underlying cognitive process or may work on compensatory strategies. The SLP must follow a developmental approach to treatment should a TBI occur in childhood or adolescence (Kennedy & Coelho, 2005).
The Source for Development of Executive Functions incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Carlson, S.M., Davis, A.C., & Leach, J.G. (2005). Less is more: Executive function and symbolic representation in preschool children. Psychological Science, 16(8), 609-616.
Cicerone, K., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D., Malec, J., Bergquist, T., et al. (2000). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81(2), 1596-1615.
Isquith, P.K., Gioia, G.A., & Espy, K.A. (2004). Executive function in preschool children: Examination through everyday behavior. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 403-422.
Kennedy, M.R.T., & Coelho, C. (2005). Self-regulation after traumatic brain injury: A framework for intervention of memory and problem solving. Seminars in Speech and Language, 26(4), 242-255.
Marlowe, W.B. (2000). An intervention for children with disorders of executive functions. Developmental Neuropsychology, 18(3), 445-454.
Shallice, T., Marzocchi, G.M., Coser, S., Del Savio, M., Meuter, R.F., & Rumiati, R.I. (2002). Executive function profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 21(1), 43-71.